Brain Surgery can refer to a number of medical procedures involving the brain and surrounding structures. The type of brain surgery required depends on the condition being treated. Conditions requiring brain surgery can include fluid buildup, an aneurysm, brain tumors, nerve damage, and more.
Hydrocephalus is an abnormal buildup of fluid in the cavities of the brain. Excess fluid causes these cavities, known as ventricles, to enlarge. This puts pressure on the brain that can cause brain damage. Symptoms can include headache, impaired vision, cognitive difficulties, loss of coordination and nausea. Typically, hydrocephalus is treated with the surgical insertion of shunt. A shunt is a flexible tube with a valve that causes excess fluid to flow elsewhere in the body where it can be more easily absorbed. However, hydrocephalus can also be treated with Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy (ETV). ETV is a surgical procedure in which a small hole is made in the bottom of a ventricle, or in between ventricles, in order to allow excess fluid to leave the brain.
A craniotomy is the surgical removal of part of the skull to expose the brain. A section of bone, known as a bone flap, is temporarily removed and then replaced after the completion of a surgical procedure. When the bone flap is replaced, it is typically done with plates or screws. Neurosurgeons perform craniotomies to treat a variety of conditions. Some such conditions include brain tumors, traumatic brain injury, nerve pain, and more.
Surgical removal is usually the first treatment method used for a brain tumor. If it’s a low-grade brain tumor, it may also be the only treatment method needed. Tumor removal will most likely require a procedure called a craniotomy. During a craniotomy, part of the skull is removed to expose the part of the brain that requires treatment. After the removal of the tumor, this part of the skull will be replaced. Some side effects, such as weakness and dizziness, may occur while recovering from brain surgery. Other side effects may depend on the location, size, or other factors related to the brain tumor.
Peripheral Nerve Injury
The peripheral nervous system connects the brain and spinal cord to the entire human body. Nerves control sensation, movement, and coordination through this connection. Symptoms of traumatic nerve damage can include pain, tingling, and loss of sensation in part of the body. It is typically more severe cases that require peripheral nerve surgery.